Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities, Article. orig-research. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation. This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless technologies have been emerging to build future-proof bimodal fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks. attention to the technical challenges and opportunities of FiWi networks, but also .

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In the event of one or more FiWi network failures, the risk list of affected mesh routers is updated accordingly. After elaborating on the rationale behind the Third Industrial Revolution and its underlying Energy Internetwe will describe in more detail how Internet technology and renewable energies are beginning to merge and help realize the vision of the smart grid and create new exciting opportunities for telecommunication service providers, municipalities, and utilities to roll out dependable low-latency FiWi based smart grid communications infrastructures and split the value chain into multitier business models.

The presented simulation results indicate that DARA outperforms other routing algorithms such as minimum hop routing, shortest path routing, and predictive throughput routing in terms of delay.

RoF networks have been studied for many years as an approach to integrate optical fiber and wireless networks. Given the location of the wireless mesh routers, the optimal placement of ONUs was found with the objective to minimize the total number of required wireless hops.

In the former case, the throughput of FiWi networks is limited by the bandwidth bottleneck and interferences of communications in the wireless subnetwork. Furthermore, we elaborate on various techniques to provide service differentiation and end-to-end guaranteed QoS and enable QoS continuity across the optical-wireless interface of FiWi broadband access networks. Furthermore, the MIP problem takes into account a wide range of important constraints with regard to user assignment, ONU installation, BS installation, capacity, and channel assignment, as well as signal quality and interference.

The second proposed heuristic optimizes the placement of ONUs by means of simulated annealinga widely used combinatorial optimization technique. Future broadband access networks will be bimodal, capitalizing on the respective strengths of both technologies and smartly merging them in order to realize future-proof fiber-wireless FiWi networks that strengthen our information society while avoiding its digital divide. Optical fiber does not go everywhere, but where it does go, it provides a huge amount of available bandwidth.

If the overall delay is smaller than a neworks delay bound the service request is accepted. In the coming era, millions of consumers will produce their own renewable energy and share it with each netaorks via an integrated and seamless Energy Internetsimilar to the way we use to create and share information online nowadays. If a fiber cut occurs between two RNs or between two CNs, their associated controllers detect the failure by monitoring the received optical signal and then switch to the clockwise protection ring.


The basic building block of GROW-Net is the grid-cell, which provides the backbone fiber connectivity to wireless gateways. Note, however, that unlike OWI networks, OW links and networks do not involve any wired fiber infrastructure. We discuss the different threads of FiWi access networking research and the rationale behind their different design objectives. Especially for event-driven M2M communications, where a large number of devices become activated within a short period of time, traffic-aware random MAC protocols were sccess to provide superior delay performance and robustness [ ].

Navid Ghazisaidi, PhD – Google Scholar Citations

OW may be deployed as a temporary backbone for rapidly deployable mobile wireless communication infrastructure, especially in densely populated urban areas. With multipath routing, data packets can be sent upstream to netwoorks OLT along multiple paths in the wireless front-end, resulting in improved load balancing and fault tolerance as well as higher network throughput.

More precisely, links with higher predicted delays are given higher weights and vice versa. Toward this end, in the central hub of the FiWi network a network terminal continually monitors the buffer depth of each OLT for the downstream traffic.

In this paper, we argue that FiWi access networks will represent a cornerstone of future broadband installations and explore ways of how they can be deployed across relevant economic sectors other than telecommunications per se. In this section, we highlight some fiber-wireeless the recently proposed techniques to provide QoS continuity across the optical-wireless interface of FiWi access networks. Upon reception of a new service request, the access gateway calculates the transmission and propagation delays by taking the wireless network conditions and traffic profile into account.

Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Broadband Access Networks in an Age of Convergence: Past, Present, and Future

In fact, in emerging LTE-A heterogeneous networks HetNetswhere femtocells with small, inexpensive, and low-power BSs are introduced to supplement existing macrocells for the sake of an improved indoor coverage, enhanced cell-edge user performance, and boosted spectral efficiency per area unit, a cellular paradigm shift is required that recognizes the importance of high-speed backhaul connections, given that most 4G research so far has been focusing on the achievable performance gains in the wireless front-end only without looking into the details of backhaul implementations and possible backhaul bottlenecks [ 86 ].

As a consequence, the out-of-order nrtworks deteriorate the performance of the transmission control protocol TCP. Toward fidi end, the authors investigated an energy-aware routing algorithm. Availability is the probability that a connection will be found in the operating state at a random time in the future.


Given that a significant proportion of the path delay generally occurs at the wireless bottleneck links between gateways and their adjacent wireless mesh routers, the delay performance can be improved by attaching external buffers to these routers.

FiWi networks and access networks in general suffer from a major shortcoming.

Advances in Optics

Note, however, networkd FMC does not necessarily imply the physical convergence of networks. Figure 1 a shows the fixed wired and wireless access technologies used by broadband subscribers in The current global crisis is far from unexpected but rather represents a recurrent historical event that is typical for capitalist economies.

More precisely, if the primary gateway fails, then all the paths to that gateway become stale and packets destined for the primary gateway acecss rerouted through live PGG paths. Axcess CN contains a protection unit. Clearly, this figure illustrates that an increasing percentage of broadband subscribers rely on fiber access technologies at the expense of legacy DSL solutions. FiWi networking research deals with the integration of optical fiber and wireless broadband access technologies.

Fiber-wireless FiWi access networks: More specifically, the OLT manages the assignment of traffic to a large number of subcarriers, which travel all along the optical distribution network to be demultiplexed only at the user side and vice versa. With the advent of high-speed IEEE Moreover, the dynamic allocation of radio resources enables cost-effective and simple handovers. To mitigate this problem, the authors proposed to use a so-called hop offset.

In [ 22 ], a low-cost MMF network was experimentally tested to demonstrate the feasibility of indoor radio-over-MMF networks for the in-building coverage of second-generation and third-generation cellular radio networks as well as IEEE This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

In [ 42 ], the ONU placement was optimized with the objective to maximize the throughput of FiWi networks for peer-to-peer communications, assuming that single-radio single-channel wireless routers are deployed and ONUs can communicate with each other by sending traffic to the OLT, which in turn broadcasts traffic back to all ONUs.

Today, Internet technology and renewable energies are beginning to merge in Europe, North America, and other regions worldwide in order to create an interactive, integrated, and seamless Energy Internet infrastructure for the so-called Third Industrial Revolution TIR economy, which goes well beyond current austerity measures and has been officially endorsed by the European Commission as economic growth roadmap toward a competitive low carbon society by [ ], as discussed in more detail next.